Dementia is a neurological disorder that is characterised by memory loss, and decline of other cognitive abilities. It is a condition that primarily affects people in their old age. In fact dementia in older adults is a major mental health concern for this demographic.

Dementia is a broad term used to refer to a group of symptoms that affect the cognitive function, social abilities, and daily activities of an individual. It is a progressive condition that gradually impairs memory, thinking, language, and judgement, and can eventually lead to loss of independence. While dementia is often associated with old age, it can affect people of all ages.

Prevalence of Dementia in old age in UK

According to the NHS, there are currently around 850,000 people with dementia in the UK, and this number is expected to rise to over 1 million by 2025. Dementia is more common in people aged over 65. In fact, it is estimated that one in every six people over the age of 80 has dementia.

Importance of addressing Dementia in Older Adults

Dementia is a complex and challenging condition that can have a significant impact on the individual, their family, and society as a whole. This can lead to increased dependency on others even for basic daily tasks, reduced quality of life, and overall increased burden on the healthcare system. Moreover, dementia can have a significant emotional and psychological impact on family members and caregivers, who may struggle to provide adequate care and support. 

Learn more about Dementia and Mental Health of Older Adults.

The NHS and AgeUK offer a range of services and resources to help individuals with dementia and their families cope with the condition, including memory clinics, community support groups, and respite care services. By raising awareness of dementia and improving access to support and treatment, we can help individuals with dementia to live with dignity, independence, and quality of life.

Types of Dementia in Older Adults

Dementia is a collective term for a range of symptoms that are related to a decline in cognitive ability, including memory loss, difficulty with communication and problem solving, and a decline in social skills. There are several types of dementia, and understanding the differences between them is important in order to provide appropriate care and support.

  • Alzheimer's disease is the most common type of dementia, accounting for around two-thirds of all dementia cases. It is a progressive in nature and leads to the death of brain cells and the breakdown of neural connections over time.
  • Vascular dementia is another common type of dementia that occurs when the blood supply to the brain is interrupted. This can be due to a stroke or other conditions that affect blood vessels in the brain.
  • Lewy body dementia is a type of dementia that is caused by abnormal protein deposits in the brain. These deposits, called Lewy bodies, can lead to cognitive decline, visual hallucinations and sleep disturbances.
  • Frontotemporal dementia is a less common type of dementia that affects the front and sides of the brain. It typically affects people under the age of 65 and can lead to changes in personality, behaviour, and language skills.
  • Parkinson's disease dementia is also caused by the same abnormal protein deposits as Lewy body dementia, but also involves the motor symptoms associated with Parkinson's disease.

Additionally, mixed dementia can occur when a person has more than one type of dementia, such as Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia.

It is important to note that each person with dementia may experience a unique set of symptoms, and that the progression and severity of the disease can vary widely between individuals.

Stages of Dementia

Stages of Dementia

Dementia is a progressive in nature and there are various stages of dementia. Each has its own unique characteristics and symptoms. Understanding the stages of dementia can help individuals and their caregivers better manage the condition and plan for the future.

The first stage of dementia is known as the early stage or mild cognitive impairment. During this stage, individuals may experience some memory loss, difficulty with word finding, and difficulty with decision-making. However, these symptoms are often mild and may not significantly impact daily life.

The second stage is known as the middle stage or moderate dementia. During this stage, symptoms become more pronounced and may include difficulty with activities of daily living, such as dressing and bathing. Individuals may also experience changes in personality and behaviour, such as agitation or aggression. It is during this stage that individuals may require specific and substantial assistance with daily tasks.

The final stage of dementia is known as the late stage or severe dementia. At this stage, individuals may lose the ability to communicate and require full-time care. They may also experience physical symptoms such as difficulty swallowing and may be at risk for infections and other health complications.

Find out about ways to Deal with Dementia and Dementia Care

Common Symptoms of Dementia in Older Adults

Dementia can cause a wide range of symptoms. The symptoms of dementia can vary greatly depending on the type of dementia a person has and the stage of the disease.

  • Memory Loss: People with dementia may have difficulty remembering recent events or information. They may also forget the names of people or objects, or have trouble finding their way around familiar places.
  • Changes in mood or behaviour: People with dementia may become more irritable, anxious, or depressed. They may also have trouble with social interactions and may withdraw from family and friends.
  • Changes in their ability to communicate: They may have trouble finding the right words to express themselves or may repeat the same words or phrases over and over again.

As dementia progresses, people may also experience more severe symptoms such as hallucinations, delusions, and paranoia.


Dementia can potentially become challenging and stressful to deal with, for both the older adults and their families. It is important to stay informed about Dementia to understand, manage and plan for care. Being in touch with your clinician and other health and care providers is also equally important. This will help you improve the overall quality of life for you or your loved ones.


With PCL Connect, you can support your ageing parents and grandparents through every step of their dementia journey. PCL Connect will track their vital signs, remind them of important tasks and medications, and ensure that their care is coordinated and comprehensive. With PCL Connect, you'll have the tools you need to provide the best possible care for your loved one, allowing them to live their life to the fullest. Click here to know more and buy PCL Connect for better Dementia care.

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