Old age is often associated with wisdom, experience, and grace. However, it's also a time when many people face various health challenges. Common old age diseases can be debilitating and can affect an individual's quality of life. In the UK, the elderly population is particularly vulnerable to a range of health problems, and it's important to understand what these common diseases are, as well as how to prevent and manage them.

Cardiovascular diseases

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a group of disorders that affect the heart and blood vessels, leading to impaired blood flow to various organs and tissues. These conditions are a major cause of mortality and morbidity among the elderly in the UK.

Heart disease is a broad term used to describe a variety of conditions that affect the heart, including coronary artery disease, heart failure, and arrhythmias. The leading cause of heart disease is atherosclerosis, a process where the walls of the arteries become clogged with fatty deposits, reducing blood flow to the heart.

Symptoms of heart disease can vary depending on the type and severity of the condition. Common symptoms include chest pain or discomfort, shortness of breath, fatigue, and swelling of the legs or ankles. However, some individuals may not experience any symptoms until the disease has progressed to a critical stage.


Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a common risk factor for heart disease and is often referred to as the "silent killer" as it often has no symptoms until complications arise. In the elderly, hypertension can lead to a number of health complications, such as stroke, heart attack, and kidney failure. Therefore, regular blood pressure checks and management are crucial for preventing cardiovascular disease in this population.

Having a healthy lifestyle which includes regular physical exercise, having a healthy, balanced diet, and not smoking can prevent cardiovascular health issues to a large extent. In some cases, medication may also be prescribed to lower blood pressure or cholesterol levels. It is essential to work closely with a healthcare professional to determine the most effective treatment plan for each individual.

Neurological Disorders

The human brain is one of the most complex organs in the body and it is responsible for controlling various bodily functions such as movement, thought, and emotions. Unfortunately, as people age, the brain becomes more susceptible to various neurological disorders that can greatly impact a person's quality of life.


Dementia is a term used to describe a group of neurological disorders that affect memory, thinking, and social abilities. Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia, accounting for up to 70% of all cases. Other types of dementia include vascular dementia, Lewy body dementia, and frontotemporal dementia.

Symptoms of dementia can vary depending on the type of dementia and the individual affected. Common symptoms include memory loss, difficulty with language, changes in mood and behaviour, and difficulty with everyday tasks. As dementia progresses, individuals may experience difficulty with mobility and may require round-the-clock care.

Parkinson's Disease: The Motor Control Disorder

Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that primarily affects a persons ability to move. The disease occurs when the nerve cells in the brain that produce dopamine start to die, leading to a loss of control over movement. 

Parkinson's disease is characterised by uncontrollable movements, stiffness, shaking and slow movement. Other symptoms of Parkinson's disease include difficulty with balance and coordination, changes in speech and writing, and cognitive changes such as memory loss and difficulty with problem-solving.

Managing and Coping with Neurological Disorders

There is currently no cure for many of these neurological disorders. But there are ways to manage and cope with them. These may include medications that can help improve cognitive function, physical as well as cognitive therapies that can help individuals with communication and other daily activities and support for daily living. 

Engaging in regular exercise, eating a healthy diet, and staying socially active can all help improve quality of life for individuals with neurological disorders.

Read about Dementia Care and Dealing with Dementia to learn how you to take care of your loved ones with dementia.

Musculoskeletal Conditions

Our musculoskeletal system is an intricate network of bones, muscles, tendons, and ligaments that work together to give us mobility and support. As we age, this system becomes vulnerable to various ailments that can significantly impact our quality of life.

Osteoporosis - brittle bones and fractures

Osteoporosis is a bone disease that affects millions of people worldwide, especially women over 50. It is characterised by the loss of bone density, which weakens the bones and makes them more susceptible to fractures. Unfortunately, osteoporosis often goes undiagnosed until a fracture occurs.

Symptoms of osteoporosis may include back pain, loss of height, and a stooped posture. However, these symptoms may not appear until significant bone loss has occurred. Therefore, early detection is crucial in preventing the progression of this disease.

To prevent osteoporosis, it is essential to have a healthy lifestyle that includes a balanced diet rich in calcium and vitamin D, regular exercise, and avoiding smoking and excessive alcohol intake.

Arthritis - joint inflammation and pain

Arthritis is a term used to describe a group of diseases that cause inflammation and pain in the joints. There are several types of arthritis, with the two most common types being osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.

Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease that occurs when the cartilage, a strong, flexible connective tissue that protects the joints and bones, breaks down over time, causing bones to rub against each other. Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease where the immune system mistakenly attacks the bone joints. Symptoms of arthritis may include pain, stiffness, and swelling in the joints. 

Unfortunately, there is no cure for arthritis, but there are several ways to manage its symptoms and improve quality of life. Treatment may include medications, physical therapy, and joint replacement surgery in severe cases.

Exercise and nutrition for better musculoskeletal health

Exercise and nutrition play a crucial role in maintaining healthy bones and joints. Regular exercise can help strengthen muscles and improve bone density, which can prevent falls and fractures. Weight-bearing exercises such as walking are particularly beneficial for bone health.

A healthy diet rich in calcium, vitamin D, and other essential nutrients is also vital for maintaining healthy bones and joints. Good sources of calcium include dairy products, leafy greens, and fortified foods. Vitamin D can be obtained from sunlight exposure or supplements.

Do you know the 10 Most Common Health Problems in Elderly in the UK? Find out here. 


Respiratory Diseases

Respiratory Diseases

The respiratory system plays a vital role in keeping our bodies functioning properly. However, in the UK, respiratory diseases are a significant cause of disability and death among older adults.

COPD - the progressive lung disease

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive lung disease that is characterised by a gradual loss of lung function and is most commonly caused by smoking.

COPD is a leading cause of death in the UK and is more prevalent in older adults. Symptoms of COPD include coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. If you experience any of these symptoms, it is important to seek medical attention immediately.

There is no cure for COPD, but there are ways to manage it effectively, which may include medications, oxygen therapy, pulmonary rehabilitation, and lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking and avoiding environmental pollutants.

Asthma - the chronic airway condition

Asthma is a chronic airway condition that affects the lungs, causing inflammation and narrowing of the airways. This results in difficulty breathing and can lead to asthma attacks, which can be life-threatening.

Asthma is a common respiratory disease in the UK, affecting people of all ages. However, older adults with asthma may experience severe symptoms and complications. Symptoms of asthma include wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness.

While there is no cure for asthma, it can be managed with medication and lifestyle changes which may involve maintaining a healthy weight, avoiding triggers (pollutants and allergens) and exercising regularly can also help manage asthma.

Quitting smoking and other ways to prevent respiratory diseases

Smoking is a major risk factor for respiratory diseases such as COPD and lung cancer. Quitting smoking is the best way to reduce your risk of developing these diseases. 

Avoiding environmental pollutants such as air pollution and workplace irritants, staying up to date on vaccinations such as the flu shot and pneumonia vaccine, and maintaining good personal hygiene can all help reduce the risk of respiratory diseases.

Is ageing a disease? Find out. 


Ageing is a natural part of life, but it's important to be aware of the potential health problems that can arise as we age. By being aware of these common health conditions and taking steps to prevent these conditions through lifestyle changes, medication, and therapy, we can maintain our health and wellbeing in our golden years.

Embracing the power of Connected care technology can make a positive impact on the health of older adults. With PCL Connect, you can realise the peace of mind that comes with health vitals monitoring, medication reminders and seamless communication with family and care providers. PCL Connect offers all of this and more, making it an invaluable tool. Unlock a new level of care and support for your elderly family members with PCL Connect. Unlock a new level of care and support for your elderly family members with their common old age diseases!

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